The final draft of the declaration of independence

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren.

Declaration of Independence

We hold these truths to be self-evidentthat all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. One of the inspirations for the American Declaration of Independence was the Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of in which the Dutch abjured the King of Spain as their sovereign.

A Declaration

Princeton University Press, The remaining nine delegations voted in favor of independence, which meant that the resolution had been approved by the committee of the whole. HE has erected a multitude of new offices by a self assumed power and sent hither swarms of new officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

The tie in the Delaware delegation was broken by the timely arrival of Caesar Rodneywho voted for independence. Neither aiming at originality of principles or sentiments, nor yet copied from any particular and previous writing, it was intended to be an expression of the American mind.

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good: Adams interlined in their own handwriting. In his Autobiography written inAdams states that the committee of five decided upon "which the declaration was to consist", and it then appointed Jefferson and himself to form a subcommittee to really write them down.

We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren.

He has waged cruel War against human Nature itself, violating its most sacred Rights of Life and Liberty in the Persons of a distant People who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into Slavery in another Hemisphere, or to incur miserable Death, in their Transportation thither.

He has refused, for a long Space of Time after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative Powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their Exercise, the state remaining in the mean Time, exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion, from without, and Convulsions within— He has refused for a long time after such dissolutions to cause others to be elected whereby the legislative powers incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise, the state remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsions within: He has made judges dependant on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices and the amount and payment of their salaries: He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.

FOR quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

With this, the colonies had officially severed political ties with Great Britain.

United States Declaration of Independence

He has constrained others, taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands: A formal parchment copy of the Declaration, adopted in Congress 4 Julywas available for signing on August 2, and most of the 55 signatures were inscribed upon it on that date.

We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

The Final Text of the Declaration of Independence July 4 1776

While the body of the document outlined a list of grievances against the British crown, the preamble includes its most famous passage: Prudence indeed will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes: He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

And for the support of this declaration, [with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence] we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, & our sacred honor. Source: Boyd, J.P. et. This is the "Rough Draft" text of the Declaration as Jefferson probably presented it to Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, for correction, prior to committee.

A transcription is provided below the image on this page. Click the image for an enlargement. John Trumbull's painting Declaration of Independence has played a significant role in popular conceptions of the Declaration of Independence.

The painting is byfoot ( by m) in size and was commissioned by the United States Congress in ; it has hung in the United States Capitol Rotunda since THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE DEBATE OVER SLAVERY When Thomas Jefferson included a passage attacking slavery in his draft of the Declaration of Independence it initiated the most intense debate among the delegates gathered at Philadelphia in the spring and early summer of And for the support of this declaration, [with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence] we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, & our sacred honor.

Source: Boyd, J.P. et al, editors. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Volume I. From a comparison of it with the facsimile of Jefferson's rough draft, it is evident that it represents the first phrasing of the paper.

The text in the second column is approximately that reported by the committee to Congress, and is taken from Jefferson's rough draft.

The final draft of the declaration of independence
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The Changes Made to Jefferson’s Original Rough Draught